SOCIOLOGY: A TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY PRIMER

Lora Stone

ISBN-13: 978-1-945628-17-7

# pages: 247

 

Suggested Retail: $48.95

Description

Sociology: A Twenty-first Century Primer provides a general introduction to the field of sociology. It covers the emergence of sociology historically, the basic concepts, theories, and topics in sociology, and emphasizes the role and importance of sociology in the twenty-first century. As textbook, it can be used as the primary text for introductory courses or a supplemental text for courses at all levels. The material in each chapter is direct and accessible in order to provide a basic foundation for all types of students, but will also be engaging for more advanced students. Key terms and web resources are included at the end of each chapter. The bibliography at the end of the book includes works that represent a wide range of influences on the field of sociology, with scholars from around the world represented. The final chapters invite students to explore global sociology, including the topics of globalization and global civil society. This introductory text can used by diverse instructors, with their many different styles and technologies, who are interested in adapting sociology to both the students and the social phenomena of the twenty-first century.

Table of Contents

PART ONE  What Is Sociology?

Chapter 1 Emergence of Sociology 3

Population Increases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4

Growth of Cities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Changes in Political and Economic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Sociology Engages Social Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Chapter 2  Theoretical Perspectives 13

Hypothesis, Theory, and Theoretical Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Classical Sociological Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Contemporary Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Chapter 3 Methods 37

What Are Methods? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

Quantitative Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

Qualitative Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

More About Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

P A R T  T W O  What Is Microsociology?

Chapter 4  Cultural Context of Microsociology . 51

Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

Elements of Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Culture and Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Chapter 5 Socialization 59

Agents of Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Life Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Resocialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Chapter 6 Social Interaction . 75

Social Structure at the Microsociological Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Social Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

The Social Construction of Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

P A R T  T H R E E  What Is Mesosociology?

Chapter 7 Groups, Communities, and Organizations 89

Informal and Formal Social Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

Primary and Secondary Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92

Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

Prejudice and Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

Chapter 8  Gender and Sex . 101

Sex as Physical Distinction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Sex and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104

Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106

Gender, Groups, and Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Social Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108

Chapter 9  Ethnicity and Race . 113

Ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Constructions of Ethnicity and Race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

Majority and Minority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

Ethnicity and Race: Social Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116

Chapter 10  Social Movements . 121

What Are Social Movements? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121

Types of Social Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

Understanding Social Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123

Levels of Commitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128

P A R T  F O U R  What Is Macrosociology?

Chapter 11  Stratification 137

Caste, Estate, and Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

Stratification and Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Variables and Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Effects of Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154

Chapter 12  Social Institutions 157

Systems, Structures, and Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157

Institutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160

Institutional Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175

Chapter 13  Demography 179

Human Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

Demographic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

Demographic Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Population Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  183

P A R T  F I V E  What Is Global Sociology?

Chapter 14  Globalization . 189

Definitions and Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190

Global Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192

Studying Globalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197

Chapter 15  Global Civil Society 203

Global Social Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204

World Culture and Global Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Global Social Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Global Society and Sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Bibliography 215

Index 219

About the Author(s): Lora Stone

Lora Stone (Ph.D., University of New Mexico, 2005) is an Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of New Mexico-Gallup, where she teaches introductory sociology and a range of other sociology courses. She has taught at universities in Indiana, Texas, and New Mexico, as well as working in the arts, non-profit sector, manufacturing, and the bicycle industry. Her research and publications have focused on social movements, teaching methods, resource management, globalization, and sustainability.

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